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We Have Specific Fruit and Vegetable Receptors

We Have Specific Fruit and Vegetable Receptors

According to a recent survey, the number of Americans adults who say they are eating ‘pretty much whatever they want’ is at an all-time high,” which unfortunately includes “too few fruits and vegetables,” as well as “too little variety.” Half of all fruit servings are taken up by just six foods: orange juice, bananas, apple juice, apples, grapes, and watermelons. Only five foods—iceberg lettuce, frozen potatoes, fresh potatoes, potato chips, and canned tomatoes—make up half of all vegetable servings. We’re not only eating too few fruits and veggies. We’re also missing out on the healthiest fruits, which are berries, and the healthiest vegetables, which are dark green leafies. The fruit and vegetable palette for our palate is sadly lacking.

Why does dietary diversity matter? As I discuss in my video Specific Receptors for Specific Fruits and Vegetables, different foods may affect different problems. Cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, and Brussels sprouts are associated with lower risk of colon cancer in the middle and right side of our body, whereas risk of colon cancer further down on the left side of our body appears to be better lowered by carrots, pumpkins, and apples. So, “different F/V [fruits and vegetables] may confer different risks for cancer” of different parts of even the same organ.

Variety is the spice of life—and may prolong it. “Independent from quantity of consumption, variety in fruit and vegetable consumption may decrease lung cancer risk,” meaning if two people eat the same number of fruits and vegetables, the one eating a greater variety may be at lower risk.

It’s not just cancer risk. In a study of thousands of men and women, a greater quantity of vegetables and a greater variety may independently be beneficial for reducing the risk of type 2 diabetes. Even after removing the effects of quantity, “each different additional two item per week increase in variety of F&V [fruit and vegetable] intake was associated with an 8% reduction in the incidence of T2D [type 2 diabetes].” Why? Well, it “may be attributable to individual or combined effects of the many different bioactive phytochemicals contained in F&V. Thus, consumption of a wide variety of F&V will increase the likelihood of consuming” more of them.

“All the vegetables may offer protection…against chronic diseases,” but “[e]ach vegetable group contains a unique combination and amount of these [phytonutrients], which distinguishes them from other groups and vegetables within their own group.” Indeed, because “each vegetable contains a unique combination of phytonutriceuticals (vitamins, minerals, dietary fiber and phytochemicals), a great diversity of vegetables should be eaten…to get all the health benefits.”

Does it matter, though, if we get alpha-carotene or beta-carotene? Isn’t an antioxidant an antioxidant? No. “It has been shown that phytochemicals bind to specific receptors and proteins” in our bodies. For example, our body appears to have a green tea receptor—that is, a receptor for EGCG, which is a key component of green tea. There are binding proteins for the phytonutrients in grapes, onions, and capers. In my video The Broccoli Receptor: Our First Line of Defense, I talk about the broccoli receptor, for instance. Recently, a cell surface receptor was identified for a nutrient concentrated in apple peels. Importantly, these target proteins are considered indispensable for these plants foods to do what they do, but they can only do it if we actually eat them.

Just like it’s better to eat a whole orange than simply take a vitamin C pill, because, otherwise, we’d miss out on all the other wonderful things in oranges that aren’t in the pill, by just eating an apple, we’re also missing out on all the wonderful things in oranges. When it comes to the unique phytonutrient profile of each fruit and vegetable, it truly is like comparing apples to oranges.


This is one of the reasons I developed my Daily Dozen checklist of foods to incorporate into one’s routine. Download the free iPhone and Android apps, and be sure to watch my video Dr. Greger’s Daily Dozen Checklist.

I discuss how produce variety—not just quality and quantity—may be important in Apples and Oranges: Dietary Diversity and Garden Variety Anti-Inflammation, so I hope you’ll check them out. You can also learn more about why combining certain foods together may be more beneficial than eating them separately in Food Synergy.

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

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Health Benefits of Citrus Zest

Health Benefits of Citrus Zest

New data demonstrating a DNA protective agent present in at least some fruits and vegetables found that the agent was heat sensitive and determined it was not vitamin C. This was confirmed in a study that tried vitamin C directly and found no effect on DNA protection or repair of DNA strand breaks.

If not vitamin C, what could the DNA protective agent be? The carotenoid beta-cryptoxanthin, found primarily in citrus, seems to be at least one candidate, as I discuss in my video Citrus Peels and Cancer: Zest for Life? If you expose cells to a mutagenic chemical, you can cause physical breaks in the strands of DNA. However, in less than an hour, our DNA repair enzymes can weld most of our DNA back together. What happens if we add some of that citrus phytonutrient? We can effectively double the speed at which DNA is repaired. But, this was determined in a petri dish. What about in a person?

In one study, subjects drank a glass of orange juice and their blood was drawn two hours later. The DNA damage induced with an oxidizing chemical dropped, whereas if they had just had something like orange Kool-Aid instead of orange juice, it didn’t help.

So, do people who eat more fruit walk around with less DNA damage? Yes, particularly women. Does this actually translate into lower cancer rates? It appears so: Citrus alone is associated with a 10 percent reduction in odds of breast cancer.

Given to newly diagnosed breast cancer patients, citrus phytonutrients were found to concentrate in breast tissue, though many complained of “citrus burps” due to the concentrated extract they were given. So, researchers evaluated topical application as an alternative dosing strategy, recruiting women to apply orange-flavored massage oil to their breasts daily. This request was met with excellent compliance, but it didn’t work. We actually have to eat, not wear, our food. 

Why not just take carotenoid supplements to boost our DNA repair? Because it doesn’t work. Although dietary supplements did not provoke any alteration in DNA repair, dietary supplementation with carrots did. This suggests that “the whole food may be important in modulating DNA repair processes…”

Though orange juice consumption was found protective against childhood leukemia, it was not found protective against skin cancer. “However, the most striking feature was the protection purported by citrus peel consumption” . Just drinking orange juice may increase the risk of the most serious type of skin cancer. Daily consumption was associated with a 60 percent increase in risk. So, again, better to stick with the whole fruit. We can eat citrus extra-whole by zesting some of the peel into our dishes.


Now you know why my favorite citrus fruit is kumquat—because you can eat the peel and all!

For other foods that may keep our DNA intact, see my Which Fruits and Vegetables Boost DNA Repair? video. Kiwifruit (Kiwifruit and DNA Repair), broccoli (DNA Protection from Broccoli), and spices (Spicing Up DNA Protection) may also fit the bill.

Interested in learning more about citrus? Check out:

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

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Should Plant-Based Women Supplement with DHA During Pregnancy?

Should Plant-Based Women Supplement with DHA During Pregnancy?

A systematic review of randomized controlled trials of DHA supplementation of pregnant and breastfeeding women failed to find any clear and consistent short- or long-term benefit for psychomotor, mental, visual, or physical development. Perhaps DHA supplementation during pregnancy has no effect because the body wisely protects the growth of the baby’s brain by drawing off of maternal stores of DHA, upregulating maternal DHA synthesis, and preferentially shuttling it to the fetus. But what if moms don’t start out with large maternal stores? In other words, maybe DHA failed to help women who were already getting enough, but perhaps women with very low intakes would benefit from DHA supplementation. My video Should Vegan Women Supplement with DHA During Pregnancy? explores the evidence available to date.

It’s interesting to note that, by 1978, researchers already were suggesting a plant-based diet as the diet of choice in the treatment of our number-one killer, heart disease, but babies breastfed by vegan moms had significantly less DHA in their bloodstreams, presumably because the moms had significantly less DHA in their breast milk.

The question is whether these differences are of any consequence. The growth and development of vegan and vegetarian born children are normal as long as they’re getting their B12, and “[t]here is no evidence that neural or intellectual functions are impaired.” In fact, the two studies we have on kids in vegetarian communities showed they had higher IQs, though that may be because their parents tended to be better educated. However, even though the kids seemed fine, that doesn’t rule out the possibility that there may be some “subtle differences…in visual or neural functioning.”

It would be interesting to compare the function of babies getting vegan breast milk levels versus general population levels. In one of the studies I profile in my video, it shows that vegans hit a level of 14, vegetarians 30, and omnivores 37. Another study compared 0 to 32, 64, and 96, and, though 32 worked better than 0, more than 32 didn’t add anything. This could explain why the general population at 37 doesn’t benefit from additional DHA supplementation. But what about down at 14? Most studies at that level show no advantage over 0, though one study found a benefit supplementing at as low as 5, but that doesn’t help us.

Just because babies breastfed by vegan moms have significantly lower DHA levels in the blood, that doesn’t necessarily mean they have lower levels in their brain, which is where it counts. What we need is a randomized, controlled trial in non-fish-eaters of DHA supplementation. Until then, it’s going to remain uncertain. So, what should pregnant and breastfeeding women who avoid fish do in the meanwhile? Low intake of DHA doesn’t “necessarily equate with fetal DHA inadequacy,” but new data suggest that some infants may not be getting enough and could benefit from their moms supplementing. Given this, I recommend pregnant and breastfeeding women on plant-based diets to follow the consensus guidelines to get about 200mg of preformed DHA from an uncontaminated source, like algae oil, which is probably the best combination for all women given the state of our world to minimize exposure to toxic pollutants such as dioxins, PCBs, and mercury. 


To gain a better understanding of why algae oil is better than purified fish oil, I encourage you to watch my video Should Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women Take DHA.

I’ve discussed concerns about pollutants in seafood during pregnancy in a number of my videos:

Finally, for more on taking long-chain omega-3s to protect your heart, see: 

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

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Should Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women Take DHA Supplements?

Should Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women Take DHA Supplements?

One of the reasons breastfed infants may have better cognitive and visual development is because human milk contains long-chain, polyunsaturated fatty acids like the omega-3 DHA, while most available infant formulas do not, based on data I discuss in my video Should Pregnant and Breastfeeding Women Take DHA?. Infants given control formula without DHA didn’t do as well as those given DHA-fortified formula, and neither group did as well as the breastfed infants, who serve as the “gold standard.” This was enough to convince formula manufacturers to start adding DHA to their infant formula starting back in 2002.

The question then became how much to add? Easy, right? Just add the amount that is naturally found in breast milk. However, the DHA level in breast milk is extremely variable depending on what the mom is eating. There are a number of healthy populations who don’t eat any seafood, for example, and they have much lower levels in their milk yet seem fine. So this makes it difficult to determine the optimal amount to add to formula or, for that matter, what to recommend for pregnant and breastfeeding women. “Consensus guidelines recommend that women should aim to consume an average of 200 mg” of DHA daily during pregnancy. “Simply encouraging pregnant women to eat more fish is not so simple, because most fish are to some extent contaminated” with toxic pollutants, such as mercury. (See my video Mercury vs. Omega-3s for Brain Development for more on this.) For most fish, such as tuna, the brain damage caused by the mercury would exceed the benefit from the DHA.

Additionally, some pollutants, like PCBs, can get stuck in our bodies for decades, so it’s not enough to just eat clean during pregnancy.

What about purified fish oil? The methods supplement manufacturers use, like distillation, leave considerable amounts of PCBs and other pollutants in the products, so much so that when taken as directed, salmon, herring, and tuna oils would exceed the tolerable daily intake of toxicity.

Thankfully, one can get the benefits without the risks by getting DHA from algae instead, which is where the fish eventually get it from themselves. So, pregnant and breastfeeding moms can cut out the middle-fish and get DHA directly from the source—at the bottom of the food chain where we don’t have to worry about toxic pollutants.

Until recently, we thought everyone should take these long-chain omega-3s for their heart. However, the balance of evidence is now such that doctors “should not recommend fish oil intake or fish consumption solely for the primary or secondary prevention of CHD,” coronary heart disease. But what about for expectant and breastfeeding mothers? What does the latest science show? Putting all the studies together, it turns out adding DHA to formula does not appear to help infant cognition after all, similar to other recent compilations of evidence that show “no significant benefit.” In fact, at least four meta-analyses, or systematic reviews, have reached a similar conclusion. These were based mostly on the standard series of measurements known as the Bayley Scales for Infant Development. If other tests were used, would there be different results? So far, no. Giving women DHA supplements during pregnancy did not appear to help with other outcomes, like attention span or working memory, either.

Although there may be no significant benefit to infant cognition, what about other things like vision? Six trials have been done to date supplementing pregnant women. Four showed no effect, and the two trials that showed benefit had some problems. So, while we really don’t know at this point, if all the studies so far show either nothing or benefit, why not just take them to err on the side of caution?

There may not be any demonstrable “clear and consistent” benefits, but there are new studies on this coming out all the time. If it’s harmless, maybe women should just take it to be on the safe side? The problem is that it may not be harmless in large doses. In a study in which women were given a whopping 800mg of DHA a day during pregnancy, infant “girls exposed to higher-dose DHA in utero [in the womb] had lower language scores and were more likely to have delayed language development than girls from the control group.”

So, the “absence of clear positive effects and the possible presence of negative effects in the children raise the question whether DHA supplementation is justifiable…” But it was a really large dose, suggesting that there may be “an optimum DHA level below and above which DHA might be detrimental to the developing brain.”


So, maybe too much is detrimental, but what about too little? I discuss that in Should Vegan Women Supplement with DHA During Pregnancy.

Other videos on the concerns about the pollutants in the aquatic food chain include:

For more on fish oil, see:

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

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Does Smoking Really Protect Against Parkinson’s Disease?

Does Smoking Really Protect Against Parkinson’s Disease?

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently celebrated the 50-year anniversary of the landmark 1964 Surgeon General’s report on smoking, considered one of the great public health achievements of our time and the first of 30 other such reports from the Surgeon General on smoking. Internal tobacco industry memos, which you can see in my Is Something in Tobacco Protective Against Parkinson’s Disease? video, document their response. Major criticisms of the report include a “[c]avalier treatment of costs of smoking”: The Surgeon General argued that smoking costs the United States billions, but the tobacco industry noted that “smoking saves the country money by increasing the number of people dying soon after retirement,” so we don’t have to pay for Social Security, Medicare, and the like. In fact, the industry argued, if we were truly patriotic, maybe we should encourage smoking to help balance the budget!

The tobacco industry also criticized the Surgeon General for a “[l]ack of balance regarding benefits of smoking,” asserting that “[o]ne has to search pretty hard to find any concession anywhere in the Report that smoking is not all bad.” This is something the tobacco industry liked to bring up when testifying before Congress, saying that health benefits include “the feeling of well-being, satisfaction, and happiness and everything else.” But beyond just all the happiness the Surgeon General was trying to extinguish, he failed to even mention that smokers appear protected against Parkinson’s disease.

“Quite unexpectedly…[m]ore than 50 studies over the last half century consistently demonstrated reduced prevalence of Parkinson’s disease among smokers compared with never-smokers.” Now there are more than five dozen studies.

But smokers are probably dying before they even have a chance to get Parkinson’s, so is that the explanation? No, that didn’t seem to be it. Researchers found a protective effect at all ages. Maybe it’s because smokers tend to be coffee drinkers, and we know coffee consumption alone appears protective. But, no. The protective effect of smoking remained even after carefully controlling for coffee intake. Well, maybe we inherit some propensity to not smoke and to get Parkinson’s. If only we could clone someone to have the same DNA. We can! They’re called identical twins. And still, the relationship remained, suggesting “a true biologic protective effect of cigarette smoking.”

Not so fast. Maybe finding unusually low rates of Parkinson’s among smokers is an example of reverse causation. That is, maybe smoking doesn’t protect against Parkinson’s—maybe Parkinson’s protects against smoking. Could there be something about a Parkinson’s brain that makes it easier to quit? Or perhaps failure to develop a smoking habit in the first place is an early manifestation of the disease.

To put that to the test, researchers studied children exposed to their parents’ smoke. If they grew up to have less Parkinson’s, that would confirm the protective link—and indeed they did. So, smoking really does seem to be protective against Parkinson’s disease, but who cares? How does that help us? “More than 20 million Americans have died as a result of smoking since the first Surgeon General’s report…” Even if we didn’t care about dying from lung cancer and emphysema, even if we only cared about our brain, we still wouldn’t smoke because smoking is a significant risk factor for having a stroke, as well.


Is there a way we could get the benefits of smoking without the risks through our diet? I discuss this in my Peppers and Parkinson’s: The Benefits of Smoking Without the Risks? video.

Other Parkinson’s videos include Preventing Parkinson’s Disease with Diet and Treating Parkinson’s Disease with Diet.

Diet may play a role in other movement disorders. For example:

Surprised about the potential benefits of coffee? See:

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

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Get Our 2019 Recipe Calendar

Get Our 2019 Recipe Calendar

It’s Giving Tuesday

Today is #GivingTuesday, kicking off the charitable season with a celebration of giving and philanthropy. To commemorate it this year, we’ve created a limited edition 2019 NutritionFacts.org Staff Recipe Calendar. If your annual wall calendar doesn’t specify when National Kale Day is (first Wednesday of October, duh) then you have the wrong calendar! This year’s recipes include Purple Sweet Potato Burgers (Kristina, Social Media Director), Almond Berry Crunch Bars (Steven, Global Volunteer Director), Curried Chickpea Wraps from my How Not to Die Cookbook, and more…directly from the kitchens of our staff members! The first 200 people to donate $100 or more to keep my 501c3 nonprofit NutritionFacts.org alive and thriving will get a calendar in time for the new year. Don’t wait—we ran out within a few days last year. Update: calendars have all been spoken for. Thank you for your support!

 

Gift Cards Available

Shopping for someone else but not sure what to give them? How about the gift of science promotion with a DrGreger.org gift card (100% of proceeds go to NutritionFacts.org). Cards are available in three designs and come in denominations of $10, $25, $50, and $100. You can send them via e-mail or print them out and give them as a physical gift. Check them out here.

 

Federal Employee CFC

CFC ApprovedAre you a federal worker? You can also show some love for evidence-based nutrition by giving to NutritionFacts.org through the CFC workplace giving program. Look for our designation number: 26461.

 
 
 

Get a Dr. Ornish Bookplate!

My dear friend and colleague, Dean Ornish, has a new book coming out that’s available right now for preorder. His 40 years of revolutionary scientific research proving that comprehensive lifestyle changes can often reverse some of our deadliest diseases essentially launched the entire field of lifestyle medicine, now the most exciting movement in medicine today. He asked me how I got so many preorders for my books and I told him you just have to put yourself out there. And look, he took my advice! Be one of the first 2,500 people to preorder UnDo It! and you’ll receive your very own personalized bookplate signed by Dr. Dean Ornish and Anne Ornish. (Actually, one of the first 2,499 since I just ordered mine!)

 

New Look Coming Soon

A brand new video experience is coming to NutritionFacts.org. In the next couple of weeks, we will be launching a stylin’ new video interface for enhanced viewing, an option for continuously playing videos, subtitle selection for our multilingual users, floating video player on scroll, and the all-new Theater Mode. I’m excited to see it myself!

 

 

Q&As Temporarily on Hold

Every month for the last two years, I have done live Q&As on Facebook and YouTube. I love this opportunity to answer all your burning questions directly, but right now I’m in the final stretch of finishing my next tome and every minute counts. So I need to put the Q&As on hold until April, but once How Not to Diet is finally out (fingers crossed for December 2019!) I hope you’ll agree that it was worth it.

Until I get back to it, you can dive into my past live chats right here on NutritionFacts.org. And remember I have an audio podcast to keep you company at http://nutritionfacts.org/audio.

 

This year, as every year, I give thanks to you and everyone who has supported me and my work to spread the power and hope of evidence-based nutrition,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

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Bell Peppers to Help Ward Off Parkinson’s

Bell Peppers to Help Ward Off Parkinson’s

Parkinson’s disease is a movement disorder striking 1 percent of our older population and is the 14th leading cause of death in the United States. While we don’t really know what causes it, we do know that people with a smoking history only appear to have about half the risk. Of course, “[s]moking is hugely damaging to health; any benefit derived from a reduction in risk of Parkinson’s disease is outweighed by the increased risks of cancer and cardiovascular disease,” as well as lung disease, but this shouldn’t stop us from “evaluating tobacco components for possible neuroprotective effects.”

Nicotine may fit the bill. If nicotine is the agent responsible for the neuroprotective effects, is there any way to get the benefit without the risks? That’s the topic of my video Peppers and Parkinson’s: The Benefits of Smoking Without the Risks?.

After all, where does nicotine come from? The tobacco plant. Any other plants have nicotine? Well, tobacco is a nightshade plant, so it’s in the same family as tomatoes, potatoes, eggplants, and peppers. And guess what? They all contain nicotine as well.

That’s why you can’t tell if someone’s a smoker just by looking for the presence of nicotine in their toenail clippings, because non-smokers grow out some nicotine into their nails, as well. Nicotine is in our daily diet—but how much? The amount we average in our diet is hundreds of times less than we get from a single cigarette. So, though we’ve known for more than 15 years that there’s nicotine in ketchup, it was dismissed as insignificant. We then learned that even just one or two puffs of a cigarette could saturate half of our brain’s nicotine receptors, so it doesn’t take much. Then, we discovered that just exposure to second-hand smoke may lower the risk of Parkinson’s, and there’s not much nicotine in that. In fact, one would only be exposed to about three micrograms of nicotine working in a smoky restaurant, but that’s on the same order as what one might get eating the food at a non-smoking restaurant. So, the contribution of dietary nicotine intake from simply eating some healthy vegetables may be significant.

Looking at nightshade consumption, in general, researchers may have found a lower risk compared to other vegetables, but different nightshades have different amounts of nicotine. They found none in eggplant, only a little in potatoes, some in tomatoes, but the most in bell peppers. When that was taken into account, a much stronger picture emerged. The researchers found that more peppers meant more protection. And, as we might expect, the effects of eating nicotine-containing foods were mainly evident in nonsmokers, as the nicotine from smoke would presumably blot out any dietary effect.

This could explain why protective associations have been found for Parkinson’s and the consumption of tomatoes, potatoes, and a tomato- and pepper-rich Mediterranean diet. Might nightshade vegetables also help with treating Parkinson’s? Well, results from trials of nicotine gum and patches have been patchy. Perhaps nicotine only helps prevent it in the first place, or could it be that it isn’t the nicotine at all, but, instead, is some other phytochemical in tobacco and the pepper family?

Researchers conclude that their findings will be need to be reproduced to help establish cause and effect before considering dietary interventions to prevent Parkinson’s disease, but when the dietary intervention is to eat more delicious, healthy dishes like stuffed peppers with tomato sauce, I don’t see the reason we have to wait.


Benefits of smoking? See the tobacco industry gloat in my video Is Something in Tobacco Protective Against Parkinson’s Disease?.

Bell peppers may actually be healthiest raw, as I discuss in Best Cooking Method.

What about tomato products? Choose whole, crushed, or diced tomatoes instead of tomato sauce, purée, or paste. Why? See Inhibiting Platelet Activation with Tomato Seeds for the answer.

You may be interested in my in-depth video series on the Mediterranean Diet:

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

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Concerns About Bone Broth

Concerns About Bone Broth

There are toxicological issues associated with production and processing of meat, such as the presence of various toxic contaminants—from dioxins and PCBs to cooked meat carcinogens. Carcinogenesis, the development of cancer, may be the main concern, but there are a number of other toxic responses connected with the consumption of meat products. Lead, for example, can be toxic to the nerves, gastrointestinal tract, bone marrow, and kidneys.

Where is lead found in the food supply? In general terms, the highest levels of lead, as well as arsenic and mercury, are found in fish. Sardines have the most arsenic, but tuna may have sardines beat when it comes to mercury and lead.

The problem is that “fish-consumption advisories related to human health protection do not consider the fish by-products fed to farmed animals,” like farmed fish. If some tilapia are fed tuna by-products, they could bioaccumulate heavy metals and pass them onto us when we eat them. Researchers found the highest levels in frozen sole fillets, averaging above the legal limit for lead.

Lead exposure has been shown to have adverse effects on nearly every organ system in the body. Symptoms of chronic exposure range from memory loss and constipation to impotence and depression. These symptoms present after pretty hefty exposure, though. However, we now know that “[b]lood lead levels in the range currently considered acceptable are associated with increased prevalence of gout and hyperuricemia” (elevated levels of uric acid in the blood). According to the Centers for Disease Control and the World Health Organization, a blood lead level needs to be less than 25 micrograms per deciliter to be “non-elevated.” You’d assume that at values under 25, there’d be no relationship with health outcomes, but even throughout this “acceptable” range, lower lead means lower uric acid levels and lower gout risk. So, even blood lead levels 20 times below the acceptable level can be associated with increased prevalence of gout. “These data suggest that there is no such thing as a ‘safe’ level of exposure to lead.” 

Once lead gets into the body, it tends to stay in the body. It builds up in the bones such that it may take 30 years just to get rid of half. The best strategy? Don’t get exposed in the first place.

If lead builds up in bones, though, what about boiling bones for broth? As I discuss in my video Lead Contamination in Bone Broth, we know bones sequester lead, which can then leach from the bones. So, researchers suggested that “the bones of farmyard animals will sequester lead, some of which will then be released into broth during its preparation.” Who eats bone broth? Bone broth consumption is encouraged by many advocates of the paleo diet. Online, you can learn all about purported “benefits” of bone broth, but what they don’t tend to mention is the theoretical risk of lead contamination—or at least it was theoretical until now. Broth made from chicken bones was found to have markedly high lead concentrations, up to a ten-fold increase in lead. Researchers concluded, “In view of the dangers of lead consumption to the human body, we recommend that doctors and nutritionists take the risk of lead contamination into consideration when advising patients about bone broth diets.”

But what if you only use bones from organic, free-range chickens? They did use only bones from organic, free-range chickens.


For more on the paleo diet, see:

Other products contaminated with lead include Ayurvedic supplements, protein powders, wild animals shot with lead ammunition, dairy products, and tea from China:

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

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I Need Your Help

I Need Your Help

Help Keep NutritionFacts.org Going and Growing

There are some people who will never change, and God bless ’em. If they want to smoke cigarettes, go bungee jumping, it’s their body, their choice. But I think most people are just confused. They want to live long, healthy lives, want to take better care of their families, but are bombarded by billion dollar industries bent on sowing confusion in hopes people will just throw up their hands and eat whatever’s put in front of them. But the good news is that we have tremendous power over our health destiny and longevity—the vast majority of premature death and disability is preventable with a healthy enough diet and lifestyle. The science is in, but it’s being drowned out by commercial interests that may not have our family’s best interests at heart. I hope you consider me a partner in the struggle to get at the truth. Nearly 190,000 scientific papers on nutrition were published over the past year, about 500 a day. Please help us sift through all that science, so you… don’t have to!

Today is the start of our annual end-of-year fundraising drive. Year after year, more than half of our entire annual operating budget has been raised around these final few weeks of the year. So we count on your giving-season generosity to make a tax-deductible donation to keep NutritionFacts.org going and growing.

I may be the face of NutritionFacts.org, but there’s a veritable army of volunteers and a dozen staff behind the scenes. They help me churn through the thousands of studies a week to stay on top of the science, so we can bring you daily videos and articles on the latest in evidence-based nutrition. This is only possible because of you. Every year, thousands of people step forward and make donations large and small to express appreciation for our work. Hundreds have even signed up to be monthly donors, which helps ensure a predictable steady stream of support. Please “root” for the facts by helping us fill the carrot! It’s a numbers game; even a single dollar can help.

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Why I Give: A Donor Story

“I am a Nutrition and Culinary Arts Instructor at a community college. I am also a Registered Dietitian, providing consults and demos for community members. I share NutritionFacts videos with my students and clients all the time, in presentations and to help answer questions on specific nutrition topics… When they ask me what to eat, my current favorite answer is what Dr. Greger shared with me, when I met him at a potluck, ‘Plants!’ 

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The content for this post was sourced from www.NutritionFacts.org

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How Plastics Can Affect Your Love Life

How Plastics Can Affect Your Love Life

Most of the attention on phthalates, a group of hormone-disrupting chemicals found in PVC plastics, has been focused on fetal and child health, particularly regarding genital and behavioral development. Recent data have shown, for example, “incomplete virilization in infant boys” and reduced masculine play as they grow up, and for girls, an earlier onset of puberty. What about affecting hormonal function in adults? I explore this in my video Avoiding Adult Exposure to Phthalates.

Men exposed to high levels of phthalate had lower testosterone levels, but that was for workers in a plastics plant. In the general population, the evidence is mixed. A study in Sweden of men in their 20s found no effect on testosterone, whereas a U.S. study on men in their 30s did find an effect, even at levels of exposure much lower than those of factory workers. When there’s conflicting evidence like this, ideally we’d put it to the test, but you can’t ethically expose people to phthalates so scientists have come up with convoluted methods like implanting the testicles from human fetuses into mice to keep them growing. We want to know about the effects on adult, not fetal, testicles, which had been harder to procure… until recently. “[C]onsent was obtained from all donors.” Now, I’ve heard of blood donors, but this is a whole other level. Researchers obtained donated testicles from prostate cancer patients who underwent castration to control their disease and, indeed, were able to get direct evidence that phthalates can inhibit testosterone production at the kinds of levels one sees in general population studies.

What about breast cancer, the number-one cancer killer of young women? Women working in automotive plastics and food canning are at five times the odds of breast cancer, suggesting a link. In a petri dish, however, phthalates didn’t seem to accelerate breast cancer growth at the levels of exposure expected in the general population. More recently, though, phthalate exposure was found to boost breast cancer cell growth in vitro at the levels found circulating in the bodies of many women. Therefore, the maximum tolerable dose set by governments should be re-evaluated.

How do you avoid the stuff? Well, when you think of plastic chemicals, you may think of water bottles, but they appear to play only a minor role. Most phthalates come from food. How do we know this? If you take people and have them stop eating for a few days, you get a significant drop in the amount of phthalates spilling into their urine. Fasting isn’t exactly sustainable, though. Thankfully, we can see similar drops from simply eating a plant-based diet for a few days, which gives us a clue as to where most phthalates are found. There were a few cases of spikes within the fasting period after showers, however, suggesting contamination in personal care products.

We can counsel patients to reduce phthalate exposures by avoiding the use of scented personal care products, soaps, and cosmetics, since phthalates are used as a fragrance carrier. Phthalates can also be found in children’s toys, as well as adult toys. “On behalf of the Danish [Environmental Protection Agency] EPA, [the Danish Technological Institute] DTI has made inquiries about the consumption pattern in connection with the use of sex toys made of rubber or plastics” to see what kind of exposure one might get “based on worst case scenarios.” Those working behind the counters at sex shops “proved to possess very little knowledge of the materials,” so the researchers had to do their own testing. It turns out that “jelly” is plasticized PVC—up to two-thirds phthalates by weight. Though the use of water-based lubricants may reduce the health risks 100-fold, phthalate exposure through lubricants may still have the opposite of the intended effect. Women with the highest levels of phthalates flowing through their bodies “had over 2.5 times the odds of reporting a lack of interest in sexual activity,” and these weren’t women in a canning factory, rather they were at typical exposure levels in America.


To find out how to lower your exposure to phthalates, see What Diet Best Lowers Phthalate Exposure?

More on hormone-disrupting chemicals in our food supply in:

Interested in learning more about improving sexual health? See:

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

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The content for this post was sourced from www.NutritionFacts.org

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