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Thanks to your generosity, we have almost hit our goal! Without your support, I wouldn’t be able to spend my days digging into all of the best research and deliver it straight to you. NutritionFacts.org gets all the royalties from How Not to Die, but the number one funding stream that keeps us thriving is individual contributions from people like you. A huge thank you/gracias/cheers/xièxiè/dankie/merci from all our staff scattered across the globe in six countries.

We are in the final days of our end-of-year donation drive. Please consider investing in my work by making a tax-deductible donation to NutritionFacts.org—we’re almost there! You can donate by using a credit cardBitcoin, transferring stock, or by sending a check to “NutritionFacts.org” PO Box 11400, Takoma Park, MD 20913.

Thanks to the collective enthusiasm for sharing NutritionFacts.org by our subscribers, 620,000 Twitter and Instagram followers, and 1.5 million Facebook and G+ fans, we averaged over 3 million page views a month this year. But it’s not about the numbers; it’s about the people whose lives we’ve touched, changed, or even saved. A heartfelt thank you to everyone who has made this public service possible.

It’s such an honor to be able to dedicate my life to helping and healing.

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

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The content for this post was sourced from www.NutritionFacts.org

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How the Meat Industry Reacted to the New Cancer Warnings

How the Meat Industry Reacted to the New Cancer Warnings

What was the meat industry’s response to leading cancer charities’ recommendation to stop eating processed meat, like bacon, ham, hot dogs, sausage, and lunch meat? As I discuss in my video Meat Industry Reaction to New Cancer Guidelines, the industry acknowledges that the most recent international cancer prevention guidelines now urge people to avoid processed meat.

“It is evident that…such a statement represents ‘a clear and present danger’ for the meat industry,” reads one response in the journal Meat Science. However, processed meat, it continues, is “a social necessity.” (How could anyone live without bologna?) The challenge for the meat industry, the response outlines, is to find a way to maintain the consumption of these convenience products while somehow not damaging public health.

We’re still not sure what in processed meat is so carcinogenic, but the most probable educated guess for explaining the damaging effect of processed meats involves heme iron, along with nitrosamine and free radical formation, ultimately resulting in carcinogenic DNA damage. To reduce the nitrosamines, they could remove the nitrites, something the industry has been considering for decades because of the long-known toxic effects they cause. The industry adds them to keep the meat pink. There are, evidently, other coloring additives available. Nevertheless, it’s going to be hard to get industry to change “in view of the positive effects” of these substances as preservatives and in achieving a “desirable flavour and red colour developing ingredients.” No one wants green eggs and ham.

It’s like salt reduction in meat products. The meat industry would like to reduce it, but “[o]ne of the biggest barriers to salt replacement is cost as salt is one of the cheapest food ingredients available.” A number of taste enhancers can be injected into the meat to help compensate for the salt reduction, but some leave a bitter after-taste. To address that, industry can also inject a patented bitter-blocking chemical that can prevent taste nerve stimulation at the same time. This “bitter blocker is only the first of what will become a stream of products that are produced due to the convergence of food technology and biotechnology.”

The meat industry could always try adding non-meat materials to the meat, such as fiber or resistant starch from beans that have protective effects against cancer. After all, in the United States, dietary fiber is under-consumed by most adults, “indicating that fiber fortification in meat products could have health benefits.” But, of course, the meat industry’s own products are one of the reasons the American diet is so deficient in fiber in the first place.

The industry is all in favor of reformulating their products to cause less cancer, but “[o]bviously any optimization has to achieve a healthier product without affecting quality, particularly hedonic aspects.”

“It is important to realise that nutritional and technological quality [in the meat industry] are inversely correlated. Currently, improvement in one will lead to deterioration of the other.” Indeed, the meat industry knows that consumption of lard is not the best thing in the world—what with heart disease being our number-one killer—but those downsides “are in sharp contrast to their technological qualities that make them indispensable in the manufacture of meat products.” Otherwise, you just don’t get the same “lard consistency.” The pig’s fat doesn’t get hard enough, and, as a result, “a fatty smear upon cutting or slicing can be observed on the cutting surface of the knife.” Less heart disease versus absence of that fatty smear? I suppose you have to weigh the pros and cons…


According to the World Health Organization’s IARC, processed meat is now a Group 1 carcinogen—the highest designation. How is it that schools still feed it to our children?

How Much Cancer Does Lunch Meat Cause? Watch the video to find out.

For more on carcinogens, cancer, and meat, see:

Some of the meat industry’s finagling reminds me of tobacco industry tactics. See, for example, Big Food Using the Tobacco Industry Playbook and The Healthy Food Movement: Strength in Unity. You can also check out American Medical Association Complicity with Big Tobacco.

Skeptical about the danger of excessive sodium intake? Check out The Evidence That Salt Raises Blood Pressure. If you’re still not convinced, see Sprinkling Doubt: Taking Sodium Skeptics with a Pinch of Salt and Sodium Skeptics Try to Shake Up the Salt Debate. Why do the meat industries add salt when millions of lives are at stake? Find out in Big Salt: Getting to the Meat of the Matter.

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

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The content for this post was sourced from www.NutritionFacts.org

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Top 10 Most Popular Videos of 2018

Top 10 Most Popular Videos of 2018

Thanks to the collective enthusiasm for sharing NutritionFacts.org by our subscribers, Twitter and Instagram followers, and over 1.5 million Facebook and G+ fans, we averaged millions of video views a month this year. But it’s not about the numbers; it’s about the people whose lives we’ve touched, changed, or even saved. That is why I’ve dedicated my life to this work. A heartfelt thank you to everyone who has made this public service possible.

NutritionFacts.org arises from my annual review of the medical literature. With the help of a team of hundreds of volunteers, we churned through tens of thousands of papers published in the peer-reviewed scientific nutrition literature and are ramping up to break new records in 2019. How do I choose which studies to highlight? In general, I strive to focus on the most groundbreaking, interesting, and useful findings; but which topics resonate the most? Is it the practical ones, offering cooking or shopping tips? Or those that dissect the studies behind the headlines? Maybe it’s the geeky science ones exploring the wonderfully weird world of human biology? As you can see from the below list, the answer seems to be a bit of all of the above:

#10 Benefits of Lentils and Chickpeas

Too many people know beans about beans…until now! In this video, lentils and garbanzo beans were put to the test. Benefits of Beans for Peripheral Vascular Disease was another popular one, exploring the question: Do legumes just work to prevent disease or can they help treat and reverse it as well?

 

#9 Does Adding Milk Block the Benefits of Coffee?

Coffee videos are perpetual favorites. A similar effect was found for fruit and tea: Benefits of Blueberries for Blood Pressure May Be Blocked by Yogurt. And you don’t want to mess around with berry benefits. See two other faves from this year Benefits of Blueberries for the Brain and Benefits of Blueberries for Artery Function.

 

#8 Benefits of a Macrobiotic Diet for Diabetes

I’m glad I finally got around to macrobiotic diets, and seems folks agreed. This is a good one to share with your low carb friends. I also did one on the Pros and Cons of Macrobiotic Diets

 

 

#7 Is It Better to Drink a Little Alcohol than None at All? 

The best available balance of evidence is taking a decided shift on alcohol. Check out the video to see why. Others in this video series included Can Alcohol Cause Cancer?, The Best Source of Resveratrol, and Do Any Benefits of Alcohol Outweigh the Risks? 

 

#6 Is Organic Meat Less Carcinogenic? 

Organic and conventional meat were put to the test for 33 different carcinogens. It’s a question I get a lot, and I’m glad there’s finally data to share.

 

 

#5 The Weight Loss Program that Got Better with Time 

The most well-published community-based lifestyle intervention in the medical literature is also one of the most effective. You know I’m definitely going to be talking about it in my upcoming new book on weight control. Others in this series are What Is the Optimal Diet?, CHIP: The Complete Health Improvement Program, and A Workplace Wellness Program that Works.

 

#4 The Effects of Avocados on Inflammation

Guac this way? Find out, as the impact of high-fat plant foods—avocados, peanuts, walnuts—and olive oil are put to the test. The other one I did this year was also popular: Are Avocados Good for You? 

 

 

#3 The First Studies on Vegetarian Athletes

Meat-eating athletes are put to the test against veg athletes and even sedentary plant-eaters in feats of endurance at Yale. The other two in the series were The Gladiator Diet – How Vegetarian Athletes Stack Up and Vegetarian Muscle Power, Strength, and Endurance.

 

#2 Dining by Traffic Light: Green Is for Go, Red Is for Stop

The most popular video of 2017 was Dr. Greger’s Daily Dozen Checklist explaining one of the tools I unveiled in How Not to Die. Here’s the other one, my traffic light system for ranking the relative healthfulness of Green Light vs. Yellow Light vs. Red Light foods.

 

#1 The Best Advice on Diet and Cancer 

The most popular this year was a video I built around one of T. Colin Campbell’s new papers. I also did How to Win the War on Cancer, which details the tragic ineffectiveness of many chemotherapy treatments. But the good news is that the vast majority of premature death and disability is preventable with an evidence-based diet and other healthy lifestyle behaviors. So make 2019 your year to wrestle control back over your health destiny.

And for some New Year, New You inspiration read through the responses on Instagram when I asked everyone what they learned from reading How Not to Die

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

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The content for this post was sourced from www.NutritionFacts.org

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Best Diet for Diabetic Neuropathy

Best Diet for Diabetic Neuropathy

Neuropathy, or damage to the nerves, is a debilitating disorder, and diabetes is by far the most common cause. Up to 50 percent of people with diabetes will eventually develop neuropathy during the course of their disease. It can be “very painful, and the pain is frequently resistant to conventional treatments.” In fact, currently, there is no effective treatment for diabetic neuropathy. Clinicians rely on steroids, opiates, and antidepressants to try to mediate the suffering.

But, as I discuss in my video Curing Painful Diabetic Neuropathy, a remarkable study was published 20 years ago on the regression of diabetic neuropathy with a plant-based diet. There are two types of diabetic neuropathy: a “relatively painless type characterized by numbness, tingling and pins-and-needles sensations” and a second form, which “is painful with burning or aching sensations to the point of excruciating, lancinating [or stabbing] pain.” This study concentrated on the painful type of diabetic neuropathy.

Twenty-one diabetics suffering with moderate or worse symptomatic painful neuropathy for up to ten years were placed on a whole food, plant-based diet along with a half-hour walk every day. Years and years of suffering and then complete relief of the pain in 17 out of the 21 patients within days.

Numbness noticeably improved, too, and the side effects were all good. They lost ten pounds, blood sugars got better, and insulin needs dropped in half. And, in five of the patients, not only was their painful neuropathy apparently cured, so was their diabetes. Their blood sugars were normal, and they were off all medications. Their triglycerides and cholesterol also improved, as did high blood pressure. In fact, it was gone in about half the hypertensives—an 80 percent drop overall in need for high blood pressure medications within three weeks.

Now, this was a live-in program, where patients’ meals were provided. What happened after they were sent home? The 17 folks were followed for years, and the relief from the painful neuropathy continued or improved even further for all except one person. How did they get that kind of compliance? According to the researchers, “Pain and ill health are strong motivating factors.”

Diabetic neuropathy is one of the most painful and frustrating conditions to treat in all of medicine, and 75 percent of patients were cured within days with a natural, nontoxic, and, in fact, beneficial treatment: a diet composed of whole, plant foods.

How could nerve damage be reversed so suddenly? It wasn’t necessarily the improvement in blood sugar control, since it took about ten days for the diet to control the diabetes, whereas the pain was gone in as few as four days. “There are several mechanisms by which the [‘total vegetarian diet’]…works to alleviate the problem of diabetic neuropathy as well as the diabetic condition itself.” The researchers’ most interesting speculation was that it could be the trans fats naturally found in meat, dairy, and refined vegetable oils that could be causing an inflammatory response. They found a significant percentage of the fat found under the skin of those who ate meat or dairy consisted of trans fats, whereas those on a strictly whole food, plant-based diet had none.

The researchers stuck needles in the buttocks of people eating different diets and found that nine months or more on a strict plant-based diet appeared to remove the trans fat from their bodies (or at least their butts). Their pain, however, didn’t take nine months to get better—it got better in days.

More likely, it was due to an improvement in blood flow. “[N]erve biopsies in diabetics with severe progressive neuropathy…have shown small vessel disease within the nerve.” There are blood vessels within our nerves that can get clogged up too. The oxygen levels in the nerves of diabetics were found to be lower than even the levels of de-oxygenated blood. This lack of oxygen within the nerves may arise from blockages within the blood vessels depriving the nerves of oxygen, presumably leading them to cry out in pain.

Within days, though, improvements in blood “rheology,” or the ease of blood flow, on a plant-based diet may play a prominent role in the reversal of diabetic neuropathy. Plant-based diets may also lower the level of IGF-1 inside the eyeballs of diabetics and decrease the risk of retinopathy (diabetic vision loss) as well. But, “the most efficient way to avoid diabetic complications is to eliminate the diabetes, and this is often feasible for those type 2 patients who make an abiding commitment to daily exercise and low-fat, whole-food vegan diet.” 

Why didn’t we learn about this in medical school? The “neglect of this important work by the broader medical community is little short of unconscionable.”


What about reversing diabetic vision loss? See my video Can Diabetic Retinopathy Be Reversed?.

Did you think trans fats were only in partially hydrogenated junk food? See Trans Fat in Meat and Dairy. Ideally, we’d reduce our intake as low as possible, which I discuss in Trans Fat, Saturated Fat, and Cholesterol: Tolerable Upper Intake of Zero.

The best way to prevent diabetic complications is to prevent the diabetes in the first place:

And then to reverse it:

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

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The content for this post was sourced from www.NutritionFacts.org

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Vinegar Is Good for You

Vinegar Is Good for You

Vinegar has evidently been used as a weight-loss aid for nearly 200 years. Like hot sauce, it can be a nearly calorie-free way to flavor foods, and all sorts of delicious exotic vinegars—like fig, peach, and pomegranate—are available to choose from. The question, though, is whether there is something special about vinegar that helps with weight loss, which is the topic of my video Does Apple Cider Vinegar Help with Weight Loss?.

Vinegar is defined as simply a dilute solution of acetic acid, which takes energy for our body to metabolize, activating an enzyme called AMPK that is like our body’s fuel gauge. If it senses that we’re low, it amps up energy production and tells the body to stop storing fat and start burning fat. And, so, given our obesity epidemic, “it is crucial that oral compounds with high bioavailability are developed to safely induce chronic AMPK activation,” which would be potentially beneficial for long-term weight loss. There’s no need to develop such a compound, though, if you can buy it in any grocery store.

We know vinegar can activate AMPK in human cells, but is the dose one might get when sprinkling it on a salad enough? If you take endothelial cells (the cells lining our blood vessels) from umbilical cords after babies are born and expose them to various levels of acetate, which is what the acetic acid in vinegar turns into in our stomach, it appears to take a concentration of at least 100 to really get a significant boost in AMPK. So, how much acetate do you get in your bloodstream sprinkling about a tablespoon of vinegar on your salad? You do hit 100, but only for about 15 minutes, and even at that concentration, 10 or 20 minutes exposure doesn’t seem to do much. Now granted, this is determined in a petri dish. What do clinical studies show us?

A double-blind trial was conducted investigating the effects of vinegar intake on the reduction of body fat in overweight men and women. The researchers call them obese, but they were actually slimmer than the average American. In Japan, they call anything over a BMI of 25 obese, whereas the BMI of the average American adult is about 28.6. Nevertheless, they took about 150 overweight individuals and randomly split them into one of three groups: a high-dose vinegar group drinking a beverage containing two tablespoons of apple cider vinegar a day, a low-dose group drinking a beverage containing only one tablespoon of apple cider vinegar a day, and a placebo control group drinking an acidic beverage they developed to taste the same as the vinegar drink but using a different kind of acid so, there was no acetic acid.

There were no other changes in their diet or exercise. In fact, the researchers monitored their diets and gave them all pedometers so they could make sure the only significant difference amongst the three groups was the amount of vinegar they were getting every day. Within just one month, there were statistically significant drops in weight in both vinegar groups compared with placebo, with the high-dose group doing better than the low-dose group, and the weight loss just got better month after month. In fact, by month three, the do-nothing placebo group actually gained weight, as overweight people tend to do, whereas the vinegar groups significantly dropped their weight. Was the weight loss actually significant or just statistically significant? Compared with the placebo group, the two-tablespoons-of-vinegar-a-day group dropped five pounds by the end of the 12 weeks. That may not sound like a lot, but they got that for just pennies a day without removing anything from their diet.

They also got slimmer, losing up to nearly an inch off their waist, suggesting they were losing abdominal fat. The researchers went the extra mile and put it to the test. They put the research subjects through abdominal CT scans to actually measure directly the amount of fat in their bodies before and after. They measured the amount of superficial fat, visceral fat, and total body fat. Superficial fat is the fat under your skin that makes for flabby arms and contributes to cellulite. Visceral fat, on the other hand, is the killer. It’s the fat that builds up around your internal organs that bulges out the belly—and the kind of fat the placebo group was putting on when they were gaining weight. Both the low-dose and high-dose vinegar groups, however, were able to remove about a square inch of visceral fat off that CT scan slice.

Like any weight loss strategy, it only works if you do it. A month after they stopped the vinegar, the weight crept right back, but that’s just additional evidence that the vinegar was working. But how was it working?

A group of researchers in the United Kingdom suggested an explanation: Vinegar beverages are gross. They created vinegar beverages that were so unpleasant the study subjects actually felt nauseated after drinking them and ate less of the meal the researchers provided. So, there you go: Maybe vinegar helps with both appetite control and food intake, though these effects are largely due to the fruity vinegar concoctions invoking feelings of nausea. Is that what was going on in the original study? Were the vinegar groups just eating less? No, the vinegar groups were eating about the same compared with placebo. Same diet, more weight loss––thanks, perhaps, to the acetic acid’s impact on AMPK.

Now, the CT scans make this a very expensive study, so I was not surprised it was funded by a company that sells vinegars, which is good, since we otherwise wouldn’t have these amazing data, but is also bad because it always leaves you wondering whether the funding source somehow manipulated the results. The nice thing about companies funding studies about healthy foods, though, whether it’s some kiwifruit company or the National Watermelon Promotion Board (check out watermelon.org), is, really, what’s the worst that can happen? Here, for example, even if the findings turned out to be bogus and worst comes to worst, your salad would just be tastier.


I’m so excited to finally be getting to this topic. Type “vinegar” into PubMed, the search engine biomedical literature, and 40,000 studies pop up. It took me a while to take it all in, but I’m so glad I did, as it’s something that has caused a shift in my own diet. I now try to add various vinegars every day.

This is the first of a five-part video series. See the other installments:

For more holistic approaches to weight loss, see:

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

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The content for this post was sourced from www.NutritionFacts.org

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Vinegar, Wine, and Artery Function

Vinegar, Wine, and Artery Function

In my video Vinegar and Artery Function, I discuss a famous study from Harvard University published back in 1999, which found that women who used oil and vinegar salad dressing about every day went on to have fewer than half the fatal heart attacks compared to women who hardly ever used it. That’s less than half the risk of the number-one killer of women.

Researchers figured it was the omega-3s in the oil that explained the benefit. I know you’re thinking: Those who use salad dressing every day probably also… eat salad every day! So perhaps it was the salad that was so beneficial. But no, they were able to adjust for vegetable intake so it didn’t appear to be the salad. Why, though, does oil get the credit and not the vinegar? Well, what about creamy salad dressings? They’re also made from omega-3-rich oils like canola, in fact even more so than oil and vinegar dressing. So if it’s the oil and not the vinegar, then creamy dressings would be protective, too. But they’re not. They found no significant decrease in fatal heart attacks rates or in nonfatal heart attack rates, for that matter. Now, it could be the eggs or butterfat in these dressings counteracting the benefits of the omega-3s or perhaps the vinegar is actually playing a role. But how? 

In my Does Apple Cider Vinegar Help with Weight Loss? video, I highlight a paper entitled, “Vinegar Intake Enhances Flow-Mediated Vasodilatation via Upregulation of Endothelial Nitric Oxide Synthase Activity.” In other words, vinegar enhances arterial function by allowing our arteries to better dilate naturally by boosting the activity of the enzyme in our body that synthesizes nitric oxide, the open sesame signal to our arteries that improves blood flow. Acetate is cleared out of your blood within half an hour of consuming a salad with a tablespoon of vinegar in it. This apparently isn’t enough time to boost the AMPK enzyme, but within just ten minutes, those kind of acetate levels can boost the activity of the nitric-oxide-synthesizing enzyme within human umbilical cord blood vessel cells in a petri dish.

But what about in people? Researchers also measured the dilation of arteries in the arms of women after they had one tablespoon of rice vinegar, one tablespoon of brown rice vinegar, or one tablespoon of forbidden rice vinegar that’s made from black or purple rice. All the vinegars appeared to help, but it was the black rice one that mostly clearly pulled away from the pack. Black rice contains the same kind of anthocyanin pigments that make some fruits and vegetables blue and purple, and may have independent benefits. For example, if you give someone a big blueberry smoothie containing the amount of anthocyanins in one and a half cups of wild blueberries, you get a nice spike in arterial function that lasts a couple of hours.

Thus, the highest maximum forearm blood flow in the forbidden rice vinegar group might be attributed to an additional or synergistic effect of anthocyanin with the acetate. But it could also just be the antioxidant power of anthocyanins by themselves. This could mean that balsamic vinegar, which is made from red wine, may have a similar effect, as it’s been shown to have remarkably higher free radical scavenging activity than rice vinegar. Could it be enough to counter the artery-constricting effects of a high-fat meal? We’ve known for nearly 20 years that eating a single high-fat meal like Sausage and Egg McMuffins with deep-fried hash browns is crippling to our arteries, halving their ability to dilate normally within hours of consumption. Even a bowl of Frosted Flakes, with its massive, unhealthy sugar load, it has no acute effect on the arteries because it lacks fat.

We aren’t just talking about animal fat. A quarter cup of safflower oil had a similar effect. In fact, the very first study to show how bad fat was for our arteries basically dripped highly refined soybean oil into people’s veins. Does this apply to extra-virgin olive oil, which isn’t refined? We know that some whole food sources of plant fat, such as nuts, actually improve artery function, whereas oils, including olive oil, worsen function. But you can see, smell, and taste the phytonutrients still left in extra virgin olive oil. So are they enough to maintain arterial function? No. Research showed a significant drop in artery function within three hours of eating whole-grain bread dipped in extra-virgin olive oil, and the more fat in the subjects’ blood, the worse their arteries did.

What if you ate the same meal but added balsamic vinegar on a salad? That seemed to protect the arteries from the effects of the fat. Because balsamic vinegar is a product of red wine, you might ask whether you’d get the same benefits drinking a glass of red wine. No. They found no improvement in arterial function after red wine. So why does balsamic vinegar work, but not red wine? Maybe it’s because the red wine lacks the benefits of the acetic acid in vinegar or because the vinegar lacks the negative effects of the alcohol. A third option might be that it was the salad ingredients and had nothing to do with the vinegar.

To figure out this puzzle, non-alcoholic wine was tested. The result? Non-alcoholic red wine worked! So maybe it was the grapes in balsamic vinegar and not the acetic acid. Indeed, if you eat one and a quarter cups of seeded and seedless red, green, and blue-black grapes with your Sausage and Egg McMuffin, you can blunt the crippling of your arteries. So, plants and their products may provide protection against the direct impairment in endothelial function, unless those products are oil or alcohol.


Check out my other videos on vinegar:

We are only as healthy as our arteries. For more videos on what may help or hurt, see:

Note that there is a level of sugar intake that can adversely impact artery function. I discuss this in my video How to Prevent Blood Sugar and Triglyceride Spikes After Meals.

Surprised about the alcohol data? For more on wine, see:

If you’ve been able to find forbidden rice vinegar, please let me know. I’d love to try it! You may be interested in my video on how pigmented rice may beat out brown rice: Brown, Black, Purple and Red (Unlike White on) Rice.

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

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The content for this post was sourced from www.NutritionFacts.org

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The Benefits of Vinegar Beyond Weight Loss

The Benefits of Vinegar Beyond Weight Loss

A double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized study found that body weight and belly fat were significantly reduced by adding just a single tablespoon of vinegar to one’s daily diet. Is there any benefit to vinegar consumption if you’re not overweight? Well, the subjects’ triglycerides normalized, and, for those taking the larger dose of two tablespoons per day, there was a dip in blood pressure. Those effects may have just been because of the weight loss, though. Other than taste, is there any benefit to normal-weight individuals sprinkling vinegar on their salads? What about vinegar for controlling blood sugar? That’s the topic of my video Can Vinegar Help with Blood Sugar Control?.

If you feed people a half cup of table sugar, as their blood sugars spike, their artery function can become impaired. The higher the blood sugars go, the more the arteries take a hit. There’s a drug, though, that can block sugar absorption. By blunting the blood sugar spike with this drug, you can prevent the arterial dysfunction. This demonstrates that it’s probably good for your heart if you don’t have big blood sugar spikes after meals. In fact, how high your blood sugars spike after a meal is a predictor for cardiovascular mortality. So do people who eat lots of high glycemic foods, like sugary foods and refined grains, tend to have more heart attacks and strokes? Yes. They also appear more likely to get diabetes—but maybe people who eat lots of Frosted Flakes and Wonder Bread have other bad dietary habits as well?

The diets that have been put to the test in randomized controlled trials and proven to prevent diabetes are the ones focusing on cutting down on saturated fat and ramping up the consumption of fiber-rich whole plant foods, such as fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, without specific regard to lower or higher glycemic loads. The drug has been put to the test, though, and blunting one’s mealtime blood sugar spikes does seem to reduce the risk of developing diabetes, as well as reduce the risk of heart attacks and high blood pressure. So is there any way to prevent these blood sugar spikes without having to take drugs? Well, one way would be to not sit down to a half cup of sugar!

Yes, the drug can slow the progression of your atherosclerosis. You can see in my video Can Vinegar Help with Blood Sugar Control? how the arteries going to your brain narrow somewhat more slowly with the drug than without it. But wouldn’t it be better to eat a diet that actually reverses heart disease and diabetes? The healthiest diet to prevent the meal-related blood sugar and fat spikes—the oxidation and inflammation—is a diet centered around whole plant foods. But what if you really want a bagel? Instead of spreading drugs on it, spreading on some almond butter may help blunt the blood sugar spike from refined carbs. Another option is to dip your baguette in some balsamic vinegar.

“The consumption of vinegar with meals was used as a home remedy for diabetes before the advent of pharmacologic glucose-lowering therapy”—that is, before drugs came along—but it wasn’t put to the test until 1988. After all, how much money can be made from vinegar? Well, according to The Vinegar Institute, millions of dollars can be made! But a single diabetes drug, like Rezulin, can pull in billions—that is, until it was pulled from the market for killing too many people by shutting down their livers. The drug company still made out like a bandit, though, having to pay out less than a billion to the grieving families for covering up the danger.

There’s no liver failure from schmearing peanut butter on a bagel, though, and it cuts the blood sugar response in half. Similarly, drinking four teaspoons of apple cider vinegar diluted in water gives the same blunting of the spike—with the additional advantage over the peanut butter of lowering insulin levels in the blood. This is something peanut butter apparently can’t do. But putting peanut butter on your bagel is presumably better than having a bagel with lox because fish causes triple the insulin response. Red wine also increases insulin levels, though not as much as fish does, and also shoots up triglycerides. Non-alcoholic red wine, however, doesn’t cause the same problem.

What about vinegar? Not only may a tablespoon a day tend to improve cholesterol and triglycerides over time, vinegar can drop triglycerides within an hour of a meal, as well as decrease blood sugars and the insulin spike, potentially offering the best of all worlds.


Was that bursting with information or what? It’s because of everyone’s kind support that I was able to hire more than a dozen researchers to help me plow through the literature. I’m extremely grateful so many of you were able to see the potential and help NutritionFacts.org become what it is today. Onward and upward!

What’s that about belly fat being reduced? Check out other videos in my series on vinegar:

Did I say reverse diabetes? Reverse heart disease? For examples, see:

Sharing information that can help people prevent and reverse common diseases is my life’s work. Check out the full story in my series of introductory videos.

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

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How Much Vinegar Every Day?

How Much Vinegar Every Day?

Consuming vinegar with a meal reduces the spike in blood sugar, insulin, and triglycerides, and it appears to work particularly well in those who are insulin resistant and on their way to type 2 diabetes. No wonder the consumption of vinegar with meals was used as a folk medicine for the treatment of diabetes before diabetes drugs were invented.

Many cultures have taken advantage of this fact by mixing vinegar with high glycemic foods. For example, in Japan, they use vinegar in rice to make sushi, and, in the Mediterranean, they dip bread into balsamic vinegar. Throughout Europe, a variety of sourdough breads can lower both blood sugar and insulin spikes. You can get the same effect by adding vinegar to boiled white potatoes then cooling them to make potato salad.

Adding vinegar to white bread doesn’t just lower blood sugar and insulin responses—it increases satiety, or the feeling of being full after a meal. As you can see in my video Optimal Vinegar Dose, a study found that if you eat three slices of white bread, it may fill you up a little, but in less than two hours, you’re hungrier than when you began eating. If you eat that same amount of bread with some vinegar, though, you feel twice as full and, even two hours later, still feel nearly just as full as if you had just eaten the three pieces of bread plain. But this remarkable increase and prolongation of satiety took nearly two tablespoons of vinegar. That’s a lot of vinegar. What’s the minimum amount?

It turns out that even just two teaspoons of vinegar with a meal can significantly decrease the blood sugar spike of a refined carb meal, a bagel and juice, for instance. You could easily add two teaspoons of vinaigrette to a little side salad or two teaspoons of vinegar to some tea with lemon. Or even better you could scrap the bagel with juice and just have some oatmeal with berries instead.

What if you consume vinegar every day for months? Researchers at Arizona State University randomized pre-diabetics to take daily either a bottle of an apple cider vinegar drink—a half bottle at lunch, and the remaining half at dinner—or an apple cider vinegar tablet, which was pretty much considered to be a placebo control: While the bottled drink contained two tablespoons of vinegar, the two tablets only contained about one third of a teaspoon. So in effect, the study was comparing about 40 spoonfuls of vinegar a week to 2 spoonfuls for 12 weeks.

What happened? On the vinegar drink, fasting blood sugars dropped by 16 points within one week. How significant is a drop of 16 points? Well this simple dietary tweak of a tablespoon of vinegar twice a day worked better than the leading drugs like Glucophage and Avandia. “This effect of vinegar is particularly noteworthy when comparing the cost, access, and toxicities” associated with pharmaceutical medications. So the vinegar is safer, cheaper, and more effective. This could explain why it’s been used medicinally since antiquity. Interestingly, even the tiny amount of vinegar in pill form seemed to help a bit. That’s astonishing. And, no: The study was not funded by a vinegar company.

What about long-term vinegar use in those with full-blown diabetes? To investigate this, researchers randomized subjects into one of three groups. One group took two tablespoons of vinegar twice a day, with lunch and supper. Another group ate two dill pickles a day, which each contained about a half tablespoon’s worth of vinegar. A third group took one vinegar pill twice a day, each containing only one sixteenth of a teaspoon’s worth of vinegar. I wasn’t surprised that the small dose in the pill didn’t work, but neither did the pickles. Maybe one tablespoon a day isn’t enough for diabetics? Regardless, the  vinegar did work. This was all the more impressive because the diabetics were mostly well controlled on medication and still saw an additional benefit from the vinegar.


Make sure to check out my other videos on vinegar’s benefits:

This vinegar effect seems a little too good to be true. There have to be some downsides, right? I cover the caveats in Vinegar Mechanisms and Side Effects.

There are a few other foods found to improve blood sugar levels:

The best approach, of course, is a diet full of healthy foods:

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

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The content for this post was sourced from www.NutritionFacts.org

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Introducing the Evidence-Based Eating Guide

Introducing the Evidence-Based Eating Guide

Check Out Our New Resource

One of the most common requests we get is for some type of practical guide to healthy eating that health practitioners can hand out in their offices or people can use at tabling events. That was part of my goal in writing How Not to Die. I took thousands of videos and boiled them down into a scant little… 562 page book. Hard to carry around 50 of those in your backpack!

So I am excited to announce a brand-new resource from NutritionFacts.org, a summary of my practical tips in booklet form, our new Evidence-Based Eating Guide. It includes a summary of my Traffic Light system and Daily Dozen checklist, as well as tips for putting them into practice—even a couple of sample meal plans.

Get it right here. There’s a digital download link and print-friendly version. We’re hoping to also have an on-demand print option set up next month so you can order pre-printed glossy copies (at cost). 

 

Daily Dozen Challenge 2.0

To help you get that Daily Dozen checklist ticked off every day, we’ve re-launched our popular Daily Dozen Challenge to help more people discover how easy it is to fit some of the healthiest of healthy foods into their daily routine. I kicked it off this year by publicly challenging five of my friends and you to try to check off all the Daily Dozen servings for one day. Then you challenge more people, and on and on, and soon lots of people will be eating healthy foods! 

To see who I challenged this year head over here. For inspiration, search the #dailydozenchallenge hashtag on Instagram, or watch some of the videos we have shared in a challenge playlist on YouTube.  

Join in the fun by: 

  1. Accepting the Challenge: Pick a day to eat the Daily Dozen, and then release your own public announcement asking others to do it.
  2. Posting a picture or video about your experience and tagging 3 more people to challenge them: Use hashtags #HowNotToDie and #DailyDozenChallenge in your announcement post and ask others to do the same. Let people know they can track their Daily Dozen on our free iPhone and Android apps. You can challenge 3 people personally, or ask all of your friends!
  3. Donating: If you or your “challengees” are unable to complete the Daily Dozen challenge you can ask them to consider donating $12 to help spread this life-changing, life-saving info to others.

If you don’t have it yet, my cookbook has tons of green-light recipes to help reach the Daily Dozen (all my proceeds from all my books go to charity). There are also a few dozen free recipes right here on NutritionFacts.org. 

 

Hiring: Web Developer

Our end-of-year fundraising campaign was such a smashing success (thanks to you!), we’re excited to offer a new job opening. We’re hiring a part-time staff person to work remotely with our CTO on day-to-day tasks including web development, maintenance, and administration of the NutritionFacts.org website. For a full job description and application, go here.

 

In health,

Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

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The content for this post was sourced from www.NutritionFacts.org

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Vinegar Caveats

Vinegar Caveats

As I note in my chapter on greens in my book How Not to Die, vinegar may be one condiment that’s actually good for you. Randomized controlled trials involving both diabetic and non-diabetic individuals found that adding just two teaspoons of vinegar to a meal may improve blood sugar control, effectively blunting the blood sugar spike after a meal by about 20 percent. How? I discuss this in my video Vinegar Mechanisms and Side Effects.

Originally, we thought it was because vinegar delayed the gastric emptying rate, slowing the speed at which a meal leaves your stomach, which makes sense because there are acid receptors in the first part of the small intestine where the stomach acid is neutralized. So, if there is excess acid, the body slows down stomach emptying to give the intestine time to buffer it all. The acid in vinegar was thought to slow the rate at which food leaves the stomach, resulting in a blunted sugar spike. But then, studies were published where taking apple cider vinegar before bedtime resulted in lower blood sugars the next day. How does that work? That’s obviously not some acid-induced stomach-slowing effect. Indeed, anyone who actually went to the trouble of sticking an ultrasound probe on someone’s stomach could have told you that—no difference in stomach-emptying times was found comparing vinegar to neutralized vinegar. So, it’s not just an acid effect.

Back to square one.

Additional studies offered the next clue. Vinegar appeared to have no effect on blood sugars, but this was after giving people a straight glucose solution. Glucose is a byproduct of sugar and starch digestion, so if vinegar blunts the blood sugar spike from cotton candy and Wonder Bread but not glucose, maybe it works by suppressing the enzymes that digest sugars and starches. And, indeed, vinegar appears to block the enzyme that breaks down table sugar. It wasn’t just an acid effect, however. There appears to be something unique about acetic acid, the acid in vinegar. These findings were based on intestinal cells in a petri dish, though. What about in people? Feed people some mashed potatoes with or without vinegar, and glucose flows into the bloodstream at the same rate either way—so, there’s another theory shot down.

Let’s figure this out. If sugar enters the bloodstream at the same rate with or without vinegar, but vinegar leads to significantly less sugar in the blood, then logically it must be leaving the bloodstream faster. Indeed, vinegar ingestion appears to enhance sugar disposal by lowering insulin resistance (the cause of type 2 diabetes), and also appears to improve the action of insulin in diabetics. The mystery of how vinegar works appears to have been solved, at least in part.

So, diabetics can add vinegar to their mashed potatoes—or just not eat mashed potatoes. If you add vinegar to a high-fiber meal, nothing happens, which explains results such as no effects of vinegar in diabetics in response to a meal. That’s no surprise, because the meal in question in the study was mostly beans. If you are going to eat high glycemic index foods like refined grains, vinegar can help—though there are some caveats.

Don’t drink vinegar straight, as it may cause intractable hiccups and can burn your esophagus, as can apple cider vinegar tablets if they get lodged in your throat (not that apple cider vinegar tablets necessarily actually have any apple cider vinegar in them in the first place). Don’t pour it on your kid’s head to treat head lice either. It’s “not harmful except when it leaks on to the face or penetrates the eyes,” and it turns out it doesn’t even work. Vinegar can also cause third-degree burns if you soak a bandage with it and leave it on.

Though as many as a total of six tablespoons a day of vinegar was not associated with any side effects in the short-term, until we know more, we may want to stick with more common culinary type doses, like two tablespoons max a day. For example, drinking 2,000 cups of vinegar was found to be a bad idea.


Other good-for-you condiments include (salt-free) mustard and horseradish. You may be interested in my Second Strategy to Cooking Broccoli video. For more on my book, check out the trailer.

This is the final installment of my five-part series on vinegar. If you missed any, here they are:

In health,
Michael Greger, M.D.

PS: If you haven’t yet, you can subscribe to my free videos here and watch my live, year-in-review presentations:

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The content for this post was sourced from www.NutritionFacts.org

View the Original Article